Real World Regulations and Other Reference Material

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Offline Bullethead

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Real World Regulations and Other Reference Material
« on: January 23, 2019, 08:15 PM »
The idea of this thread is to have links to real-world regulations and whatnot, so that folks wanting to add some extra realism to their parks can find this info easily.  So if you have some good references, add them to the thread and I'll go back and edit this post with links to your posts.  Most of the stuff I'll be digging up will be for the US so I hope to see some good contributions for other countries ;).

Here are a few things to start the ball rolling:

Infrastructure

Highway and Road Marking and Signals (US):  If your map includes travel roads for peeps to drive to your park, then you need to give them the proper size, stripes, signage, intersection dimensions, lights, etc.  In the US, the Federal Highways Administration (FHWA), part of the US Department of Transportation (DOT), has promulgated the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD).  Some states have adopted this as-is, others have modified it, and still others have done their own version (which is largely the same).  This link goes to the official MUTCD site, where you can get the actual document and also learn which states do things differently.  https://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/kno_2009r1r2.htm

Parking Lot Striping (USA):  Ever wonder what the proper dimensions (in the US) are for parking lot spaces, whether square or angled?  Or the size of handicap spots?  ParkingLotPlanet (purveyors of parking lot striping and stenciling materials) has all the answers.  They even know how to do helicopter pads.
*  Page of very helpful hints:  http://web.parkinglotplanet.com/helpful-hints.html
*  Page of handicap info:  http://web.parkinglotplanet.com/handicap-guidelines.html

Wastewater Treatment Ponds.  All the park's sewage and runoff from the log flume has to go somewhere.  Unless your park is in a big city, it's unlikely that the local sewage system (if one even exists) can handle the load, so you'll have to build  your own.  This official 2011 EPA document will tell you WAY more than you ever wanted to know about what these look like and how they work:  https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2014-09/documents/lagoon-pond-treatment-2011.pdf


Safety Features

Aircraft Warning Lights/Paint for Tall Structures ((international):  Due to the global nature of aviation, the rules about the lights and paint required to keep aircraft from flying into tall structures are pretty much the same everywhere.  These rules, however, don't depend entirely on the height of a structure; also included are its proximity to an airport, the minimum legal flight altitude in that area, and the local terrain, so you need to know where your park sits in relation to such things.  The US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)'s rules are easy to find and are pretty much the same as everywhere else.  And the purveyors of the lights used for this purpose, who sell globally, keep abreast of changes and local differences.  So here are some useful sources of info:
*  US FAA's official word on the subject, AC 70/7460 (see Appendix A for diagrams but read the text to know which diagram to use:  https://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.current/documentNumber/70_7460-1
*  Catalog of a light purveyor which starts with a summary of the rules and diagrams:  http://www.cooperindustries.com/content/dam/public/crousehinds/resources/pdfs/literature/obstruction-lighting-guide.pdf

*  Fire Safety (US):  In the US, there's the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA).  This is a non-governmental, FOR-profit body composed of representatives from the fire service, building construction industry, makers of firefighting and fire safety equipment, industries that tend to catch fire, and many other interested parties.  They arrive at a "consensus" on the best practices to prevent fire and other types of injuries, and how to save people if prevention fails.  Then they publish model codes (in an 18-volume set) on all these subjects, which the state and local governments can adopt, in whole or in part, as the law of their lands.

While there are hundreds of separate NFPA standards in the 18 volumes that normal folks have never heard of, the fire insurance industry has coerced most state and local governments into adopting 2 of them by threatening substantially to raise the premiums of voters:  NFPA 1 (the National Fire Code) and NFPA 101 (the National Life Safety Code).  However, NFPA 1 includes ALL 18 volumes of the NFPA corpus by reference so if you adopt that, you adopt them all.

A brief summary of the salient parts of NFPA 1, Chapter 18, is now up:
https://www.shyguysworld.com/index.php/topic,21192.msg473179.html#msg473179

At some later date, I'll add a post summarizing NFPA 101 as it pertains to parks.  But for the nonce, here's the official NFPA website where you can view the standards for free.  In terms of park construction, the most applicable things are NFPA 1 Chapter 18 (fire department access and water supply) and NFPA 101 Chapters 7 (occupant load and means of egress), 12 (new assembly buildings---most structures in a park), 28 (new hotels), 38 (new offices), and 42 (storage facilities).  NOTE:  NFPA is FOR-profit so is rather stingy with info and this free stuff is hard to access.
https://www.nfpa.org/Codes-and-Standards/All-Codes-and-Standards/Free-access

*  Fire Hydrant Colors:
The weird and wonderful world of fire hydrant paint schemes explained:  https://www.shyguysworld.com/index.php/topic,21192.msg473286.html#msg473286
« Last Edit: January 28, 2019, 08:49 AM by Bullethead »
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Offline Bullethead

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Re: Real World Regulations and Other Reference Material
« Reply #1 on: January 25, 2019, 12:43 PM »
NFPA 1 Chapter 18:  Fire Department Access and Water Supply

INTRO to NFPA 1 and 101

NFPA 1 and NFPA 101 are the law of the land in most of the US, thanks to the insistence of the fire insurance industry.  They work together to try to provide an acceptable level of fire safety, as follows:  NFPA 1 impacts overall park design with rules about building size and spacing, the ability of the fire department to get close to the buildings, and providing enough water on-site to put out any fire that might occur.  NFPA 101 (to be covered later) lists the fire and life safety features required by individual buildings: number, size, and location of exits, sprinkler and alarm systems, etc.  So basically, you sketch out the whole park in compliance with NFPA 1, then build each structure in compliance with NFPA 101.

VERY IMPORTANT NOTE:  Nearly every requirement listed in NFPA 1 and 101 can be modified with the approval of the "authority having jurisdiction" (AHJ), which is usually the local fire chief.  For example, NFPA 101 might not require sprinklers in a certain building, based just on the characteristics of that building by itself.  However, the building's location precludes the amount of fire department access required by NFPA 1 without totally hosing the park layout and aesthetics.  So, the fire chief might be persuaded to accept less access than required by NFPA 1 on the condition that the building be sprinklered.

My real-world job largely consists of reaching this sort of compromise with developers ;).  IOW, this happens all the time so don't be freaked out if following NFPA 1 would cause major problems with your park design.  Arrive at some sort of reasonable compromise.  After all, the local fire chief wants your park because it will increase tax revenue.  So just say your problematic structure is sprinklered, made of fire-resistive materials, has all sorts of firefighting equipment staged in sheds nearby, and that your staff is trained in all sorts of fire-safety stuff.

Anyway, on with the show.....



NFPA 1 is a huge document but, fortunately, for park design purposes, you only really have to worry about Chapter 18, which is only about 6 pages.  This chapter is about 2 things:

1.  Providing roads to allow fire trucks to get close enough to all the buildings to be effective.
2.  Providing sufficient water sufficiently close to every building to extinguish any fire that might occur on the site.

Each will be summarized below.  But it might help if you have a copy of NFPA 1 Chapter 18 to refer to as you read this post as I reference the code paragraphs in each bullet point.  Here's a link to a PDF of the 2003 edition (the road requirements are still the same but the water requirements have changed a lot).  The red text is the explanatory material from the annexes inserted into the main text of the code.

http://files.engineering.com/download.aspx?folder=5036fb6e-fb95-4cbf-b75c-e52fed261a0f&file=ch_18_NFPA_1_handbook.pdf

I.  FIRE DEPARTMENT ACCESS ROADS
The main requirements (subject to reasonable compromise with the AHJ) are as follows:
*  Multiple roads in the overall park can be used to meet the following requirements.
*  All FD access roads must have an unobstructed width of 20' and a minimum clearance of 13' 6" (18.2.2.5.1.1)
*  All FD access roads must have all-weather surfaces capable of supporting fire trucks (assume 30 tons each) (18.2.2.5.2)
*  The turn radii of all FD access roads shall meet the requirements of the AHJ (usually going to be 30-50' on the inside edge of the road) (18.2.2.5.3).  See illustration on page 380.
*  Dead-end FD access roads longer than 150' shall have a turn-around suitable for the AHJ's fire trucks (18.2.2.5.4) See illustration on page 380.
*  Bridges on FD access roads must be rated and posted for fire trucks (assume 30s on 2 axles).  (18.2.2.5.5)
*  Grades of FD access roads must be suitable to the AHJ (18.2.2.5.6)
*  An FD access road must come to within 50' of at least 1 exterior door of every building (18.2.2.2)
*  Every part of the exterior wall of each building must be within 150' of an FD access road (18.2.2.3.1) UNLESS the building is sprinklered.  Then parts of the exterior can be up to 450' from an FD access road (18.2.2.3.2)
*  FD access roads must be marked as such to prevent parking or other obstructions (18.2.2.5.7)

Obviously, these requirements don't play nice with park aesthetics so you'll have to reach compromises with the AHJ.  When doing so, think about what else can do the job of a fire truck.  Fire trucks pump water and carry thousands of feet of hose (and their nozzles, valves, etc.) plus all sorts of other equipment (ladders, air packs, burglar tools, etc.).  So if the fire truckS (you're probably going to need 4-6 at least) can't get there, how else can you provide the ability to get water on the fire and all the other stuff firefighters need?

II.  WATER SUPPLY

There are 2 aspects to this issue:  having the required flow as determined by the size and type of buildings, and making that flow available close enough to the buildings.

II.A.  Required Flow

The current edition (2015, soon to be replaced by 2019) of NFPA 1, Chapter 18 has a nice table showing the required flow for all types of buildings of all different sizes, and whether or not they're sprinklered.  All that's missing from the old 2003 edition linked above.  I might one day reproduce that table here but for now, we'll just do some rough approximations using rules of thumb and some glossing over of the actual rules of more recent editions.

Flow is measured in gallons per minute lasting for 1 or more hours so involves not only the delivery rate but the available volume of the whole water system.  For example, a required flow of 2000gpm for 2 hours is a total of 240,000 gallons, which is about what the large type of water towers hold.  That might require you to build such a water tower if you can't get that much water from the existing system or a convenient pond.

A commonly used rule of thumb for a building's fire flow is the "Iowa Rule".  This is:

Required gallons per minute = the building's ( L x W x H ) / 100 (all measurements in feet). 

Divide this in half if the building is sprinklered.  Then you add 25% to that for each other building within 50'.  But all commercial buildings regardless of size and sprinklers must still have at least 1000gpm available even if the above rule gives less.  And this flow must be sustained for at least 1 hour (longer times are usually for hazardous industrial or fuel storage facilities).

NOTE:  You really only need to preform this guesstimate for the biggest building in the park unless you want to take all this more seriously than you should in a game :).

So let's say you have a 2-story (9m (30') high at the roofline) building that's 24m (80') x 12m (40').  It's not sprinklered and has 2 other buildings within 50'.  That's 960gpm for the building itself, plus another 50% for the 2 exposures, for a total of 1440gpm, for an hour.  If the building was sprinklered, it would require 480gpm itself, plus another 240gpm for the exposures, for a total of 720gpm.  However, because it's commercial, you'd still have to provide 1000gpm, for an hour.

II.A.1  Infrastructure Implications:  Delivery Rate

Once you know the required delivery rate (gpm), can the existing local water system provide that?  This depends on where your park is located.
*  Big city:  1000-2000gpm per hydrant, able to flow this simultaneously from multiple adjacent hydrants, forever.  So just put enough hydrants nearby and you're fine.
*  Small town:  Might get 1000gpm from the 1 hydrant at the foot of the water tower, maybe 600-800 in the rest of town and its immediate surroundings, and can only flow 1 hydrant at a time anywhere in the system as they rob each other.  You'll have to make some infrastructure improvements to get sufficient water just for drinking, let alone the required fire flow.  Plus do something about sewage.
*  Out in the boonies:  If there's any local water system at all (as opposed to private wells), it will likely only provide 100-200gpm assuming there's even a hydrant out there.  You'll have to build a complete water infrastructure for all park needs:  potable, nonpotable, and fire.  Oh, and a sewer system and wastewater treatment facility, too.

II.A.2  Infrastructure Implications:  Duration

The required delivery rate must be maintained for at least 1 hour, maybe more.  Water wells typically don't add water to the system at anywhere near the rate fires consume it, so this means you need water storage to handle the load.  If you're in a big city, maybe the system already has that available.  Elsewhere, you might have to build a water tower or pond.

II.A.3  Infrastructure Implications:  Ponds

Ponds are nice because 1) they look better than water towers, 2) you're probably going to build one anyway, 3) they hold way more water than towers, and 4) they can provide higher delivery rates than smalltown or rural water systems.  It's thus possible to solve both your delivery rate and duration problems with ponds, without having to build much of a water infrastructure.

Fire engines can suck water directly out of ponds at the capacity of their built-in pumps.  The typical fire engine has a pump capacity of 1000-1500gpm so you can cover your delivery rate by providing access for sufficient fire engines.  And a pond 100' in diameter has a surface area of 7854 square feet.  Thus, each 1" of depth contains 1130973 cubic inches = 4896 US gallons of water, so even a requirement for 240,000 gallons over 2 hours will only take the pond down about 4'. 

HOWEVER, ponds have limitations.
*  Fire trucks must be able to get right up to the water's edge (suction hose is not very long) and nearly down to the water's surface (the pumps can't lift very high on the sucking side).  You can keep the fire truck up to about 20' from the water by using a dry hydrant but you need 1 for each pumper.
*  Fire trucks can only lift about 10', 3 of which are consumed by the height of the pump intake above the ground.  The remaining 7 feet must include whatever reduction of water level happens during prolonged flows.  Thus, you can't escape having to get the truck down to near water level even with a dry hydrant.
*  The point of fire truck access must be close enough to the building that needs the flow.  Some AHJs might allow up to 1000', others only 400'.
*  There must be an FD access road connecting the firetruck access point on the pond to the building needing this flow.  This is so trucks can drive up this road laying hose, so that the truck at the pond can pump to the truck at the building.

Of course, a large pond might have several access points in different places to protect different buildings.

II.B  Fire Flow Access

Not only does the water have to be available at the required delivery rate for the required duration, but the fire department must be able to tap into this close enough to the buildings.  Fire trucks only carry so much hose and can only pump so far through that hose.  There are 2 main ways of meeting this requirement:  hydrants and ponds.

II.B.1  Hydrants

In commercial developments, every building must be within 400' of at least 1 hydrant, and the hydrants must be spaced no more than 600' apart.  Hydrants must also be within 12' of the edge of the FD access roads, with no deep ditches between them.

This hydrant spacing is regardless of how much water comes out of the hydrant as having something is better than nothing.  Hydrants can, of course, be closer together but the overall water system determines how many you can use at once and how many gpm you get from each.

In game terms, the easiest thing is to put in hydrants (we have a part for that) and assume the water system is sufficient to provide the necessary flows.  However, if you're out in the boonies, you should probably devote a corner of the map to a large water tower and some water wells, and have pump stations scattered throughout the park to move the water around.  Otherwise, you'll need ponds.

II.B.2  Ponds

The various access requirements of ponds were outlined above.  Here I explain why some AHJs allow them to be 1000' feet from buildings, which is more than for hydrants.  This is because of the pumps in the fire trucks.

Water comes out of hydrants at the pressure provided by the water system's towers and pumps.  While fire trucks can connect suction hose to hydrants and suck a bit more out of them, this can't be done too much without imploding the water mains.  Ponds don't have this limitation so the truck can suck as hard as it can.

The typical fire truck has a pump capacity of between 1000gpm (smaller, older trucks in the boonies) to 1500gpm (bigger, newer trucks in more developed areas).  They also typically carry at least 1000' of 5" diameter supply hose.  Due to friction loss in the hose, 1000' is as far as you can pump 1500gpm through 5" hose.  The net result is that a truck at a pond can supply 1500gpm to another truck actually fighting the fire up to 1000' away.  This effectively puts a 1500gpm hydrant at the fire building.  It is, of course, possible to make a chain of multiple trucks each 1000' apart and move 1500gpm a longer distance (relay pumping), but this takes too much time and too many resources to be very practical, and is a total bitch to pick up after the fire (1000' of 5" supply hose is bad enough, on top of the attack lines used).  Thus, I don't know of any AHJs which allow more than 1000' from a pond.


« Last Edit: January 25, 2019, 06:47 PM by Bullethead »
-Bullethead
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Re: Real World Regulations and Other Reference Material
« Reply #2 on: January 26, 2019, 05:37 AM »
There have been a couple of parks on here where I honestly believe the builders were following every one of these.

Most days it's the most I can do to make sure every set of steps has a nearby ramp.  :-[

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Re: Real World Regulations and Other Reference Material
« Reply #3 on: January 26, 2019, 10:08 AM »
I'm trying to hold myself to this, as much as possible, in Pharqueson Farms.  It's becoming a pain :)
-Bullethead
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Re: Real World Regulations and Other Reference Material
« Reply #4 on: January 28, 2019, 08:47 AM »
US FIRE HYDRANT COLORS

There is no universal standard for the colors of fire hydrants.  Many jurisdictions don't paint them at all so they remain the color applied by the factory (usually red, sometimes yellow).  Other jurisdictions have developed their own color schemes, which might have some underlying meaning or be simply for aesthetics.  There is, however, a potential universal standard, NFPA 291.  While NFPA 291 is included by reference in NFPA 1, which is the law of the land in most of the US, NFPA 291 itself says that it's totally optional.  Quite a few jurisdictions use it anyway, however, so I will explain it here.

NFPA 291 specifies the following color scheme:

*  Main body of Hydrant:  chrome yellow for high visibility.

*  Top and Caps:  color-coded based on the flow (in gallons per minute) the hydrant can produce.  We can't repaint the top of the stock PC hydrant so you can only do that if you make custom hydrants.

*  *  Red:  < 500gpm  (Typical in rural areas many miles from a water tower, where the mains are 4-6".  Generally can only flow 1 hydrant on this system at once.)

*  *  Orange:  500 to 999gpm (The upper end of this range is what gravity alone can give you, and will only be found close to the tower.  The flow falls off with distance from the tower.  Typical of small towns with 1 tower and no pumps, and also rural areas in the vicinity of a tower.  Can use 2 hydrants simultaneously at most, but neither will be a full flow).

*  *  Green:  1000 to 1499gpm  (Generally requires pumps on the mains as well as a tower.  Can often use 2 or more hydrants at once with no real problem.  Typical of suburban developments and bedroom communities).

*  *  Light Blue:  1500gpm or more (Generally requires both pumps and larger mains.  Typical of big cities or other well-developed water systems.  Can usually use as many hydrants as you need).

-------------------

NOTE:  In most places, the hydrants are connected to the domestic water system so produce potable water, the same as comes out of kitchen taps.  Some hydrants, however, may be connected to a non-potable water source.  In these cases, OSHA recommends painting their bodies violet instead of yellow.

If the hydrant is painted black overall, this generally means that it's out-of-service indefinitely.  It won't be fixed any time soon, if ever.  You shouldn't have any black hydrants in your parks :)


-Bullethead
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Offline Fisherman

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Re: Real World Regulations and Other Reference Material
« Reply #5 on: January 28, 2019, 05:17 PM »
Awesome resources!  Thanks for compiling all of this, buddy!

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Offline Bullethead

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Re: Real World Regulations and Other Reference Material
« Reply #6 on: January 28, 2019, 05:28 PM »
Awesome resources!  Thanks for compiling all of this, buddy!

Glad you find it useful.  I'll be adding some more in the future.  I hope folks form overseas add their own rules to this, too, as I'm quite curioius about international differences.
-Bullethead
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Re: Real World Regulations and Other Reference Material
« Reply #7 on: February 24, 2019, 06:06 AM »
Thanks for collecting all this information!
Even if I think I'm too lazy to stick to all this stuff, especially the logflume-wastewater conditions.
My Water won't get dirty, that's my solution. Period.

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Offline cody

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Re: Real World Regulations and Other Reference Material
« Reply #8 on: March 16, 2019, 11:29 AM »
I love this! Thank you for the real world application, this could be used in all of our creations to make us all even more confused on what is real and what is in-game!  :P

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Offline hhnman234

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Re: Real World Regulations and Other Reference Material
« Reply #9 on: March 21, 2019, 05:09 PM »
I love this, Thank you!

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Offline Bullethead

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Re: Real World Regulations and Other Reference Material
« Reply #10 on: April 17, 2019, 07:07 AM »
Thanks for collecting all this information!
Even if I think I'm too lazy to stick to all this stuff, especially the logflume-wastewater conditions.
My Water won't get dirty, that's my solution. Period.

I love this! Thank you for the real world application, this could be used in all of our creations to make us all even more confused on what is real and what is in-game!  :P

I love this, Thank you!

Thanks, folks!  I'll try to get NFPA 101 up eventually, although it will likely have to be done in pieces.
-Bullethead
NIHIL INIQVIVS QVAM ÆQVITATEM NIMIS INTENDERE
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